There is no god worthy of worship except God and Muhammad
is His messenger. This declaration of faith is called the
Shahada, a simple formula which all the faithful pronounce.
In Arabic, the first part is la ilaha illa'Llah - 'there is
no god except God'; ilaha (god) can refer to anything which
we may be tempted to put in place of God--wealth, power, and
the like. Then comes illa'Llah: 'except God', the source of
all Creation. The second part of the Shahada is Muhammadun
rasulu'Llah: 'Muhammad is the messenger of God.' A message
of guidance has come through a man like ourselves.
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Salat is the name for the obligatory
prayers which are performed five times a day, and are a direct
link between the worshipper and God. There is no hierarchical
authority in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led
by a learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by the congregation.
These five prayers contain verses from the Quran, and are
said in Arabic, the language of the Revelation.
Prayers are said at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and
nightfall, and thus determine the rhythm of the entire day.
Although it is preferable to worship together in a mosque,
a Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices,
factories and universities. Visitors to the Muslim world are
struck by the centrality of prayers in daily life.
A translation of the Call to Prayer is:
'God is most great. God is most
great. God is most great. God is most great. I testify that
there is no god except God. I testify that there is no god
except God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Come to prayer!
Come to prayer! Come to success (in this life and the Hereafter)!
Come to success! God is most great. God is most great. There
is no god except God.'
Once Muslims prayed towards Jerusalem,
but during the Prophet's lifetime it was changed to Makkah.
From the minbar, the pulpit, the Imam who leads the prayer
gives the sermon at the Friday noon community prayers.
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One of the most important principles
of Islam is that all things belong to God, and that wealth
is therefore held by human beings in trust. The word zakat
means both 'purification' and 'growth'. Our possessions are
purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need,
and, like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances
and encourages new growth.
Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakat individually.
For most purposes this involves the payment each year of two
and a half percent of one's capital.
A pious person may also give as much as he or she pleases
as sadaqa, and does so preferably in secret. Although this
word can be translated as 'voluntary charity' it has a wider
meaning. The Prophet (SAW) said: 'Even meeting your brother
with a cheerful face is charity.'
TheProphet (SAW) said: 'Charity is a necessity for every Muslim.'
He was asked: 'What if a person has nothing?' TheProphet (SAW)
replied: 'He should work with his own hands for his benefit
and then give something out of such earnings in charity.'
The Companions asked: 'What if he is not able to work?' The
Prophet (SAW) said: 'He should help poor and needy persons.'
The Companions further asked 'What if he cannot do even that?'
The Prophet (SAW) said 'He should urge others to do good.'
The Companions said 'What if he lacks that also?' The Prophet
(SAW) said 'He should check himself from doing evil. That
is also charity.'
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Pillar: The Fast
Every year in the month of Ramadan,
all Muslims fast from first light until sundown, abstaining
from food, drink, and sexual relations. Those who are sick,
elderly, or on a joumey, and women who are pregnant or nursing
are permitted to break the fast and make up an equal number
of days later in the year. If they are physically unable to
do this, they must feed a needy person for every day missed.
Children begin to fast (and to observe the prayer) from puberty,
although many start earlier.
Although the fast is most beneficial to the health, it is
regarded principally as a method of selfpurification. By cutting
oneself off from worldly comforts, even for a short time,
a fasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry
as well as growth in one's spiritual life.
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Pillar: The Pilgrimmage (Hajj)
The annual pilgrimage to Makkah, the
Hajj, is an obligation only for those who are physically and
financially able to perform it. Nevertheless, about two million
people go to Makkah each year from every comer of the globe
providing a unique opportunity for those of different nations
to meet one another. Although Makkah is always filled with
visitors, the annual Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the
Islamic year (which is lunar, not solar, so that Hajj and
Ramadan fall sometimes in summer, sometimes in winter). Pilgrims
wear special clothes: simple garments which strip away distinctions
of class and culture, so that all stand equal before God.
The rites of the Hajj, which are of Abrahamic origin, include
circling the Ka'ba seven times, and going seven times between
the mountains of Safa and Marwa as did Hagar during her search
for water. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide plain
of Arafa and join in prayers for God's forgiveness, in what
is often thought of as a preview of the Last Judgement.
In previous centunes the Hajj was an arduous undertaking.
Today, however, Saudi Arabia provides millions of people with
water, modem transport, and the most up-to-date health facilities.
The close of the Hajj is marked by a festival, the Eid al-Adha,
which is celebrated with prayers and the exchange of gifts
in Muslim communities everywhere. This, and the Eid al-Fitr,
a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are the main
festivals of the Muslim calendar.
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